SCA endorses products with the Toxic-Free Tick, that do not contain ammonia or peroxide (see above). “Ammonia is highly toxic. Normally blood ammonium concentration is < 50 µmol /L, and an increase to only 100 µmol /L can lead to disturbance of consciousness. A blood ammonium concentration of 200 µmol /L is associated with coma and convulsions.” - www.ucl.ac.uk
CAS No: 7664-41-7 & CAS No: 7664-41-7. Ammonia and Ammonium hydroxideand; Ammonia anhydrous; Ammonia gas; and Ammoniac "Synonym(s): AMMONIA (NH3-N) ; AMMONIA NITROGEN UNIONIZED (AS N) ; AMMONIA, ANHYDROUS; AMMONIA, UNIONIZED; NH3-N; UNIONIZED AMMONIA; UNIONIZED AMMONIA AS N; AM-FOL; AMMONIA (ACGIH:OSHA) ; AMMONIA ANHYDROUS; AMMONIA GAS" - EWG
HOW IS THIS USED?
Ammonia is a cleaning solution commonly used in household and industrial cleaning products; toilet and bathroom cleaners and polishing agents for bathroom fixtures, sinks and jewelry. It is also used in water purifucation, rubber, paper, pharmaceuticals and explosives.
RESEARCH - WHAT DO THE EXPERTS SAY
NICNAS Human Health Tier II
WHAT IS AMMONIA?
"Carcinogenic to humans; there is convincing epidemiologic evidence of a casual association... Demonstrates a potential hazard to humans" - EPA IRIS Assessment for Ammonia; Toxic Review Report
"Ammonia and bleach used when cleaning at home could cause changes in the lung tissue and accelerated decline of lung health." - Authors of the University of Bergen lung study
“Ammonia is a powerful irritant,” says Donna Kasuska, chemical engineer and president of ChemConscious, Inc., a risk-management consulting company. “It’s going to affect you right away. The people who will be really affected are those who have asthma, and elderly people with lung issues and breathing problems. It’s almost always inhaled. People who get a lot of ammonia exposure, like housekeepers, will often develop chronic bronchitis and asthma.” Ammonia can also create a poisonous gas if it’s mixed with bleach." - 8 Hidden toxins by ExperiencedLife.com
"Ingredients with high acute toxicity include chlorine bleach and ammonia, which produce fumes that are highly irritating to eyes, nose, throat and lungs, and should not be used by people with asthma or lung or heart problems. These two chemicals pose an added threat in that they can react with each other or other chemicals to form lung-damaging gases. Combining products that contain chlorine and ammonia or ammonia and lye (in some oven cleaners) produces chloramine gases, while chlorine combined with acids (commonly used in toilet bowl cleaners) forms toxic chlorine gas." - OrganicConsumers.org, How toxic are your household cleaning supplies?
RESOURCES & RECOMMENDED ARTICLES:
Domestic/Cleaning; CAS No: 111-76-2. 2-Butoxyethanol; and "Synonym(s): 2-BUTOXY- ETHANOL; 2-BUTOXYETHANOL; BUTYL GLYCOL; ETHANOL, 2-BUTOXY-; ETHANOL, 2BUTOXY; ETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOBUTYL ETHER; GLYCOL MONOBUTYL ETHER; MONOBUTYL ETHYLENE GLYCOL ETHER; 2-BUTOSSI-ETANOLO (ITALIAN) ; 2-BUTOXY-1-ETHANOL; 2-BUTOXY-AETHANOL (GERMAN)." - EWG
HOW IS THIS USED?
Domestic/Cleaning Products (not cosmetics); Found in window and glass cleaners, multi-purpose sprays; butoxyethanol is a common solvent used to remove dirt with less effort.
RESEARCH - WHAT DO EXPERTS SAY
"A U.S. Environmental Protection Agency review finds inhalation of 2-butoxyethanol causes liver damage in lab animals. And,
Harmful in contact with skin; GHS Hazard Codes - EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes; Harmful if inhaled." - EWG
WHAT IS BUTOXYETHANOL?
"2-Butoxyethanol is readily absorbed following inhalation, oral, and dermal exposure. ... 2-Butoxyethanol has moderate acute toxicity and is irritating to the eyes and skin; it is not a skin sensitizer." - World Health Organisation
"Harmful effects on the liver and kidney were seen in some animals and may be related to hemolysis. 2-Butoxyethanol is also irritating to the skin and eyes of animals, as it is in people. ... Other reproductive effects and birth defects in animals have only been observed at doses that were toxic to the adult animals." - Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry
"2-Butoxyethanol is readily absorbed via all routes of exposure (inhalation, dermal, ingestion) with low to moderate acute toxicity via oral, dermal and inhalation routes." And, 2-Butoxyethanol at 20% is too high for general consumer use in domestic products given its potential for skin and eye irritation and inhalation toxicity ." And, "Risks; The most sensitive toxicological end point is the destruction of red blood cells (haemolysis). Additional toxicities include neurotoxicity (loss of coordination, sluggishness and narcosis) and nephrotoxicity. And, 2-butoxyethanol has low to moderate acute toxicity via oral, dermal and inhalation routes, and severe skin and eye irritancy." - TGA Therapeutic Goods Administration Australia