- Irritated skin and allergic reactions can be triggered by natural or synthetic ingredients.
- The majority of reactions to makeup and other products are usually 'irritations' and not an allergy.
- The best way to eliminate the problem is to avoid the products that cause redness, irritation and rashes.
- Products can contain a multitude of chemicals, any of which have the potential to trigger irritation and allergies.
- It's important not to confuse skin conditions like seborrheic and atopic dermatitis or rosacea with chemical sensitivity.
- Once you are allergic or sensitised to a particular chemical, the sensitivity typically persists, and can become far worse with repeated use.
- Always discontinue use of a product at first sign of a skin
reaction, do not continue using a product that causes irritation,
redness, rash etc
- Continuing to apply a product to the skin
(that causes a reaction) can have long-term systemic effects that can
potentially increase sensitivity, duration and severity of skin
irritation allergic reactions and the likelihood of cross reactivity.
Allergic Contact Dermatitis
Irritant Contact Dermatitis
Who is responsible for the safety of cosmetics?
Registered IP Australia Trademark ALLERGY CERTIFIED Figurative No. 1841366
Australian Allergy Certified® Campaign
brands that pledge to agree on excluding and/or restricting the
following chemicals from their cosmetics, personal care and household
products OR they clinically test their products that contain SCA's list
of skin irritants and provide safety warnings for known skin
irritants including allergens in bold text on the product label and
published at point of sale. The following chemicals are associated with allergic dermatitis, contact dermatitis and/or skin irritation that has the potential to trigger systemic reactions either immediately or after repeated long-term use.
- The list of Key Allergens are just SOME of the potential irritants commonly used in cosmetics, personal care and household products -
Licensing SCA's Allergy Certified Trademark is subject to the following terms and conditions
Use of SCA's campaign logo Australian Allergy Certified. Where a product is Clinically Tested and found to be suitable for sensitive, allergy prone skin, the product is scientifically proven to be 'safe' for use on human skin; clinical tests can confirm that the product is a 'non-irritant to skin' or 'non-toxic to skin' or 'non-sensitising to skin'. Brands can therefore substantiate their claim with clinical test reports, confirming the nature of their product formulation(s), and in this case SCA will permit the brand to market their product(s) with SCA's campaign logo "Australian Allergy Certified". Clinical testing is not required by standards for cosmetics. Brands that exclude and restrict known irritants meet a higher standard than current legislation. Brands have 6 to 12 months to comply from date of signing SCA's trademark licensing agreement(s).
- Products that are not clinically tested are advised to exclude and/or restrict the chemicals of concern detailed below -
The campaign highlights the need for improved labelling laws with ingredient transparency and allergy advice similar to mandatory food labels.
This is not required by standards of cosmetic labeling, it is required to license any of SCA's trademarks.
Fragrances Synthetic & Natural
Synthetic Fragrances, Parfum, and Xylene are restricted to a combined total usage of 1% or less for leave on products, and 3% or less for rinse off products. The percentage usage for certain essential oils are listed below, products that use these essential oils should require a warning to "always patch test before use". All other essential oils are permitted at standard usage rates up to 3% according to product type and intended consumer.
- Known human immune toxicant or allergen, Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety
- NICNAS - IMAP - Tier III - Human Health; not restricted for use; Critical Health Effects "The critical health effects identified have not changed from the Tier II assessment [potential skin sensitisation and systemic long-term effects (genotoxicity and carcinogenicity)]." And, "Health Hazard Information Fragrance ingredients may pose a concern in relation to their potential skin sensitisation, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity hazards. Since the time of the Tier II assessment of these chemicals, no animal data have become available on skin sensitisation and carcinogenicity." - NICNAS October 2018
- "This Tier II group assessment includes further refinement of the risk characterisation for these chemicals where possible, and outlines the most significant data gaps that would need to be addressed to further refine the risk assessment." - NICNAS Australia September 2015
- The Dirty Dozen
- "The word "fragrance" or "parfum" on the product label represents an undisclosed mixture of various scent chemicals and ingredients used as fragrance dispersants such as diethyl phthalate. Fragrance mixes have been associated with allergies, dermatitis, respiratory distress and potential effects on the reproductive system. Synonym(s): AROMA; PARFUM" - EWG
- "Linked to cancer and neurotoxicity. “Many fragrances are toxic. Some of these fragrances may be phthalates, which can act as obesogens (cause obesity) and may otherwise disrupt normal endocrine function, including reproductive health. Phthalates may cause developmental defects and delays.” – Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D. Chemistry Expert.
- Face care products 0.2-1.5%
- Body massage 1.5-3%
- Bath & Body products 1-4%
- Specific skin issues 4-10%
- Antiseptic for wounds 5-20%
- Treating pain 5-20%
- 0-3 months old 0.1% to 0.2%
- 3-24 months old 0.25% to 0.5%
- Age 2-6 years old 1% to 2%
- Age 6-17 years 1.5% to 3%
- Age 18+ years for most adults 2% to 3%
- Adult short term application 3% to 10%
- Elderly or sick 0.5% to 1%
Maximum Combined Total Usage Permitted 1% leave on or 3% rinse off:
0.9% Bay Oil West Indian
0.05% Cassia Oil
0.1% Cinnamon Bark Oil
0.6% Cinnamon Leaf
0.5% Clove Bud Oil
1.0% Holy Basil Oil
0.7% Jasmine Absolute
0.05% Lemon (TGA poisons standard)
0.7% Lemongrass Oil
0.7% Lemon Myrtle
0.8% Lemon Scented Tea Tree
0.8% May Chang Oil
0.01% Massoia Oil
0.9% Melissa Oil
0.1% Oakmoss Absolute
0.6% Opoponax Oil
0.4% Peru Balsam Oil
0.8% Ylang Ylang Oil
- Known human nervous system toxicant by ATSDR Agency For Toxic Substances.
- NICNAS no restrictions for use in Australia.
- NICBI; well-absorbed by the inhalational, oral and to some extent by the dermal route.
- EU "Classified as toxic or harmful (only for products for use on skin; products that may be aerosolized (airborne))" - EWG EuropeanUnion
- Xylene is a synthetic musk fragrance that mimics natural musk, but is man made with synthetic chemicals. It is not natural. “The average fragrance product tested contained 14 secret chemicals not listed on the label,” reports EWG.
- "Xylene is a known to be irritating to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Also causes dizziness , nausea and drowsiness; chronic dermatitis, kidney/liver/peripheral nerve damage." Mysafetylabels.com
- Dangers of Synthetic Scents Include Cancer, Asthma, Kidney Damage and More. By Annie Price CHHC, DrAxe.com;
- Fragrances are found in most cosmetic products
including makeup, skincare creams, lotions and serums, hair care,
shampoo and conditioners, scented candles and air fresheners, personal
care like deodorant, soap and sunscreen, and of course perfumes,
colognes and body sprays.
- The most vulnerable are pregnant women, infants and children.
- Health Hazards of Xylene: A Literature Review
- NCBI Health Hazards of Xylene: A Literature Review; "Prolonged exposure to xylene leads to significant amount of solvent accumulation in the adipose and muscle tissue. " and "Studies have shown that xylene is well-absorbed by the inhalational, oral and to some extent by the dermal route. "
- Derm Doctor, Avoiding the Toxic-Trio
- Chemical Allergies, WebMD
- The key is to look for products that are totally fragrance-free — which is not the same as unscented. "Unscented means that a product can contain a masking fragrance to camouflage its pungent, unpleasant odor," says Bank in an article for MarieClaire. "Fragrance-free means truly no fragrances."
- “There is definitely credible science behind certain benefits for certain essential oils,” says Cynthia Bailey, MD “Once you become sensitized, you will forever be allergic to it,” says Bailey in an article for WebMD.
- "If you suffer from contact dermatitis from fragrances, have a history of allergies to weed pollens, have significant asthma or chronic nasal symptoms, I would highly recommend speaking with your physician, allergist or dermatology prior to the use of any essential oil product." Daniel More MD, VeryWellHealth.com
- When using essential oils, a low usage of 1% or less is considered safe for use for sensitive skin, and unlikely to cause irritation.
- Any allergen has the potential to trigger an allergy, therefore if you are allergic then avoid using the allergen all together.
- The percentage for products that are not applied directly to the skin ie. wash-off products are restricted to <2.5% for the combined total usage of fragrances including esssential oils and synthetic fragrances.
- Daniel More MD "The most commonly reported allergic reaction to essential oils is contact dermatitis. Contact dermatitis from essential oils causes an itchy, bumpy rash on the skin at the site of contact with the oil. The rash may appear similar to poison oak, may have blisters and peel when the rash is resolving." - VeryWellHealth.com
- Banned by the International Fragrance Association; extracts and distillates maximum 0.4% in products - WikiPedia
- Essential Oils: Natural Doesn’t Mean Risk-Free - WebMD; “I would certainly advise teens and children not to use essential oils,” says Jessica Krant, MD, an assistant clinical professor of dermatology at SUNY Downstate Medical Center in New York.
Coal Tar - Colourants & TGA Approved Medicated Products
The Chemistry of Cosmetics, Carcinogens in your cosmetics? "The EU bans 1,328 chemicals from use in cosmetics – including
formaldehyde, asbestos and coal tar – that are known or suspected to cause cancer, genetic mutation, reproductive harm or birth defects. The US Food & Drugs Administration (FDA), by comparison, has only banned or restricted 11." - TheGuardian.com - Australia has not banned any of these ingredients, some are listed as poisons with usage restrictions. Safe Cosmetics Australia campaigns to raise chemical awareness in a world where authorities act after significant incidence is reported concerning adverse health effects, and that are chemicals commonly used in our food, cosmetics, textiles and household products.
- "Coal tar topical medication may make your skin more sensitive to sunlight and even put you risk for a bad sunburn" - EveryDayHealth.com
- 116 Things that can give you cancer No.26 Coal Tar - TheGuardian.com
- What are food dyes made of? "They are made in a lab with chemicals derived from petroleum, a crude oil product, which also happens to be used in gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt, and tar. NPR.org: “Artificial food dyes are made from petroleum and approved for use by the FDA to enhance the color of processed foods.” - 100daysofrealfood.com
- Dr Mercola, Toxic food dyes
- Allergy to selected cosmetic ingredients
- "Coal tar is a thick dark liquid which is a by-product of the production of coke and coal gas from coal. It has both medical and industrial uses. It may be applied to the affected area to treat psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis. It may be used in combination with ultraviolet light therapy." - WikiPedia
- Coal tar is used in food, personal care products, cosmetics, medicated shampoos, soaps, ointments, antiseptics, hair dyes and more. "It is a complex mixture of hundreds of compounds, many of which are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),. Coal tar is used in food, textiles, cosmetics and personal care products. Experimental studies have found that application of and exposure to coal tar produce skin tumors and neurological damage." - SafeCosmetics.org
- NICNAS Human Health Tier II; The non-industrial uses identified for coal tar in Australia as an ingredient in therapeutic goods including lotions, creams and scalp cleansers are listed on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG).
- Listed in the Australian Poisons Standard & TGA as a therapeutic drug.
- Prohibted & restricted in Canada
- Banned in the EU
- Not permitted in cosmetics in New Zealand
- Association of South Eastern Asian Nations (ASEAN) Not permitted in cosmetics
- FDA allows 0.5% to 5% restriction is safe for use in America.
- CosIng banned & found unsafe in cosmetics
- "dyes such as toluidine red, calcium salts of lithol red, or lead oxide, which may be the cause of allergic reactions" - Pierzchała E, Lis-Święty A. Allergy to cosmetics on lips and perioral region [Polish] Dermatol Estet. 2005;7:273–6. [Google Scholar]
Coal Tar Dyes
Where a brand tests their products and/or the ingredient of concern is tested for carcinogenic contaminants, test reports confirming that the product and/or ingredients are free-from carcinogens can be submitted; SCA will endorse product(s) containing toxic-free coal tar dyes with unrestricted usage provided proof of testing is provided.
- Synthetic colours. FD&C or D&C artificial colours are derived from coal tar or petroleum. Synthetic colors are suspected to be a human carcinogen, a skin irritant and are linked to ADHD in children. Dyes are not pure chemicals and may contain upwards of 10% impurities.
- Many artificial food colours
are derivatives of
petrochemicals and coal tar. Coloring agents blue 1, blue 2, yellow 5,
and yellow 6 are banned in the EU. Dyes are manufactured as powders,
or liquids. They are used as a colouring agent in food, cosmetics and
other household products.
- Studies show that long-term exposure to artificial dyes can cause cancer or other effects.
- EWG "Other HIGH concerns: Contamination concerns, Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive), Persistence and bio-accumulation"
Hair Dyes & Makeup
SCA endorses products with the Allergy Certified logo, that do not contain PPD.
- Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is a chemical substance that is widely used in permanent hair dyes. PPD can cause cross reactions triggering a secondary allergy to other hair dyes: NCBI PPD Allergy
- "PPD is also present in many inks used for temporary tattoos. ... The FDA stated, “So-called “black henna” may contain the “coal tar” color p-phenylenediamine, also known as PPD. This ingredient may cause allergic reactions in some individuals. The only legal use of PPD in cosmetics is as a hair dye." And, "PPD is potentially capable of causing multiple toxic effects following skin contact." And, "PPD has potent skin-sensitizing properties." And, "Studies have also identified the chemical as the third most common ingredient, after fragrances and preservatives, that can cause contact dermatitis from cosmetics"- AnnMarie
SCA endorses products with the Allergy Certified logo, that do not contain MEA.
Ethanolamine or MEA; "Synonym(s): 2-AMINO- ETHANOL; 2-AMINOETHANOL; 2-HYDROXYETHYLAMINE; ETHANOL, 2-AMINO-; ETHANOL, 2AMINO; MEA; MONOETHANOLAMINE; 2-AMINOAETHANOL (GERMAN) ; 2-AMINOETANOLO (ITALIAN) ; 2-AMINOETHANOL (OSHA) ; 2-HYDROXYETHYLAMINE." - EWG
- NICNAS not restricted for use.
- Restricted in the US
- "Ethanolamine may cause a skin allergy. If allergy develops, very low future exposure can cause itching and a skin rash. Ethanolamine can irritate the lungs. Repeated exposure may cause bronchitis to develop with cough, phlegm, and/or shortness of breath." - NJ.gov/health
- Causes moderate skin irritation. "Harmful if absorbed through the skin. Causes skin burns. May cause dermatitis. May cause cyanosis of the extremities."
- Restricted in the US, the CIR expert review panel concluded that ethanolamines were "safe for use in cosmetics and personal care products designed for discontinuous, brief use followed by thorough rinsing from the surface of the skin. In products intended for more prolonged contact with the skin, the concentration of TEA and DEA should not exceed 5% percent, while ethanolamine should be used only in rinse-off products."Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics "Human immune and respiratory toxicant or allergen - strong evidence air borne products"
- How to fix your skin problems naturally.
- EWG Ethanolamine rating
- Avoiding Toxic Chemicals In Hair Dyes. Learn How To Colour Your Hair Safely by Living Safe
- Chemical vs natural hair dye by CHOICE
- Is hydrogen peroxide harmful to your hair? by Science Made SimpleIs hydrogen peroxide harmful to your hair? by Science Made Simple
- NICNAS has No restrictions on importing or use of this colourant that is banned in the US;
- "Violation of government restrictions - Restricted in cosmetics; use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Color additive not approved by FDA for cosmetics used around eyes (only for products for use around the eyes)" And, "Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmetics." CTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook. And, "Possible human carcinogen California EPA Proposition 65" - EWG
- Carbon Black: Dangers in cosmetics explained by Maple Holistics
- Carbon Black : SafeCosmetics
- Nano Industry calls for another look at carbon black by CosmeticsDesign-europe.com - "The Nanotechnology Industries Association (NIA) has called on its
members to comment on the recent SCCS opinion on carbon black in
nanoform for use as a colourant in cosmetics."
- Many chemicals are very strong and can be extremely sensitising to the skin and body. For example, chemicals in hair dyes such as PPD para-phenylenediamine, TDA toluene-2,5-diamine and other aromatic amines are different chemicals, but they have similar structures that can trigger skin irritation. Fragrances are often the culprit of cross reactivity becuase they contain thousands of different chemicals rolled into one ingredient on the product label.
- In food, cross-reactivity occurs when protein is present. "If the same protein is present in several foods, then that person may have allergic reactions to any food containing that protein. Examples of cross-reactivity include people allergic to similar proteins present in hen's egg and duck eggs; or cow's milk and goat's milk; or cashew nut and pistachio nut." - Allergy.org
- "Many of the approved ingredients of oxidative hair dyes are strong or even extreme contact allergens; for instance, p-Phenylenediamine (PPD, 1,4-diaminobenzene, CAS no. 106-50-3), toluene-2,5-diamine (TDA, 1,4-diamino-2-methylbenzene, CAS no. 95-70-5; synonym p-toluenediamine, PTD) and p-aminophenol (CAS no. 123-30-8) are three important precursors or intermediates associated with hair dye-related allergic contact dermatitis." And, "Cross-reactivity has been described as a contact allergic reaction to a molecularly similar chemical to which the individual has not yet been exposed. The immune system is not capable of differentiating between the sensitizing chemical and the almost similar new chemical" - Mdpi.com Department of Dermatology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.
Azo Dyes, FD&C Colour Cosmetics
Banned Amines - Azo Dyes Regulations Textiles & Leather Overseas: "Some amines are carcinogenic in nature i.e. they can cause cancer and hence there is a ban on usage of dyes and pigments that can release such amines." Nimkartek.com, And, "Azo dyes releasing specific amines (under certain conditions) are restricted in the EU, China, India, Egypt, South Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam. The amount of a banned amine that can be detected in the finished articles is limited to either 30 mg/Kg in the EU and 20 mg/Kg in China. Several brands have a Maximum Allowable Concentration on finished articles as 20 mg/Kg." - See full list of azo dyes here >
p-aminoazobenzene (CAS No. 60-09-3); The chemical is reported to be found in some semi-permanent hair dyes (Haz-Map). Banned in EU, SEAN, NZ, China and restrited in United Arab. Reported use in hair dyes, known carcinogen, skin irritation induced at 0.1% - Azo dyes are Not restricted for use in Australia, NICNAS Classified as hazardous, "oral exposure by young children sucking textiles containing the dye" is a health concern. o-aminoazotoluene (CAS No. 97-56-3); Classified as hazardous, may cause cancer; The chemical has been reported to cause allergic contact eczema of the hands and arms in humans. Not restricted in Australia. o-anisidine (CAS No. 90-04-0), p-chloroaniline (CAS No. 106-47-8); Toxic if swollowed, restricted in the EU to 0.1%, no restrictions in Australia; found in cosmetic ingredients, such as chlorhexidine and triclocarban in deodorant soaps, sticks, sprays, roll-ons and mouthwashes. 4-chloro-o-toluidine (CAS No. 95-69-2) listed on the Poisons Standard "Substances with a high potential for causing harm at low exposure". 6-methoxy-m-toluidine (p-cresidine) (CAS No. 120-71-8) Not listed with NICNAS; this chemical is imported from China, India and Japan, the same chemical is banned and/or restricted for use in China and other countries, 2-naphthylamine (CAS No. 91-59-8) Reported use in detergents, ASEAN, EU, China & NZ banned & restricted, not restricted in Australia. 5-nitro-o-toluidine (CAS No. 99-55-8) ASEAN, EU, China & NZ banned and restricted, not restricted in Australia detected in tattoo inks. 2,4-toluenediamine (CAS No. 95-80-7) used in food packaging and pigments, o-toluidine (CAS No. 95-53-4) ASEAN, EU, China & NZ banned & restricted, not restricted in Australia, used in azo dyes and pigments. 2,4,5trimethylaniline (CAS No. 137-17-7) 95-53-4. o-Toluidine. Not directly listed. Hazardous at 0.1%. (137-17-7. 2, 4, 5-Trimethylaniline) - see chemicals identified in tattoo inks.
Certified Coal Tar Dyes
Colours Exempt From Certification
Which are the safest colours in cosmetics? Experts advise Iron Oxides are the safest.
Where a brand tests their products and/or the ingredient of concern is tested for carcinogenic contaminants, test reports confirming that the product and/or ingredients are free-from carcinogens can be submitted; SCA will endorse product(s) containing toxic-free colour additives with unrestricted usage provided proof of testing is provided. (Brands have 12 months to comply with SCA's terms effective as of 4th April, 2019 or discontinue use of SCA's Allergy Certified seal).
Food Colourings: Natural & Synthetic
"Cochineal may be made from bugs, but other synthetic red dyes such as Red No. 2 and Red No. 40, which carry far greater health risks, are derived from either coal or petroleum byproducts." LiveScience.com
110 Sunset yellow FCF
124 Ponceau 4R
129 Allura red AC
133 Brilliant blue FCF
142 Food green S
151 Brilliant black BN
155 Brown HT
Banned in Norway, Austria, and other countries in the European Union have banned the sale of foods containing harmful dyes like red 40, yellow 5, yellow 6 and/or blue 2 which happen to be the most commonly used food dyes in the US. They have been linked to toxicity and hazardous health effects.
- Food colouring & additives: "There is a big number here of both natural and chemical food additives that are hazardous to human health. FD&C blue, red dye and tartrazine are a few of them from the class of chemical food additives. Among natural food additives, food colors like annatto pose quite a few health risks for those who are allergic to it. Brilliant Blue FCF, or the FD&C blue 1 is a food color that has often been banned in some countries, not due to some one time food intolerance, but because it is known to cause cancer and skin and eye irritating substances." - FoodAdditiesWorld.com
- "Brilliant Blue FCF, or the FD&C blue 1 is a food color that has often been banned in some countries, not due to some one time food intolerance, but because it is known to cause cancer and skin and eye irritating substances. Red dye is also a harmful food additive among the harmful synthetic food colors category. " And, "Tartrazine is a yellow dye 5 that is a harmful food additive that causes a number of allergy intolerance reactions like depression, weakness, patchy skin, migraine, vision disorder, sleeping irregularities and most of all, hyperactivity in kids. It is commonly found in ice creams, juice drinks, jams, jellies and other canned foods. Red dye is also a harmful food additive among the harmful synthetic food colors category" - FoodAdditiesWorld.com
- NICBI Cochineal Extract Allergies
- Food dye can cause severe allergic reactions
- Carcinogenicity of the aromatic amines: from structure-activity relationships to mechanisms of action and risk assessment.
- US - Color Additives Permitted for Use in Cosmetics and Restrictions
- Colouring in food & makeup tied to allergic reactions, WashingtonPost.com
- Makeup allergy facts
- FDA Prohibted and Restricted Ingredients
- FDA Colour Additives & Cosmetics
- FDA Colour Additive Regulations
FD & C Synthetic Colour Additives
- Synthetic dyes are used in all toiletries and bath products like soap, shampoo and body wash, body lotions, smelly jellies, creams and gel products, as well as hair dye.
- Article for EatingWell.com, Hidden health risks of food dye: "The three most widely used culprits—Yellow 5, Yellow 6 and Red 40—contain compounds, including benzidine and 4-aminobiphenyl, that research has linked with cancer. Research has also associated food dyes with problems in children including allergies, hyperactivity, learning impairment, irritability and aggressiveness." And, “We see reactions in sensitive individuals that include core ADHD symptoms, like difficulty sitting in a chair and interrupting conversations,” says David Schab, M.D., M.P.H., assistant clinical professor of psychiatry at Columbia University and co-author of a 2004 meta-analysis that found food dyes promote hyperactive behavior in already hyperactive children.
manufactured using benzene.
Direct Red 24, CAS No. 6420-44-6
- Red 40; CTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook: Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmetics.
- FDA approved for use in food and external cosmetics with restrictions for use; banned for products intended for Lips and Eyes.
- EU approved for use in food and cosmetics with restrictions, but local laws banning food colorants are preserved. Wikipedia.com
- NICNAS Australia approved for use:
Screening and categorising azo-based substances: Azo dyes may potentially cause: "human health effects related to skin sensitisation and mutagenicity as well as systematic toxicity including carcinogenicity" - NICNAS states azo dyes have low concern for human health despite reportings of increased hypersensitivity 2010.
- "The break down and release of carcinogenic by-products is a major concern but it isn’t the only problem to besiege colours. More and more research is being done into the fate of colours in UV light following on from concerns over UV induced rashes and dermatitis made worse with cosmetic use. These free radical style reactions can affect almost any type of chemical and might result in a complete re-think of how we formulate colour cosmetics in the future." - RealiseBeauty.wordpress.com
Solvent Dyes : Soap, Candle & Hair Dyes
- Health Canada Hotlist: Solvent Red 24 (CAS Nos. 85-83-6) and Solvent Red 23 List of prohibited and restricted cosmetic ingredients
- ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations "List of substances which must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products"
Ultramarine Violet: Pigment Violet 15
[CI 77007] CAS Number: 12769-96-9
VIOLET: Acid Red 27 Aluminum Lake
"AZO DYES that are derivatives by diazotisation when used in non-oxidative hair, eyelash and eyebrow dye products where the percentage of free o-anisidine as listed in Schedule 7 is no more than 0.001%." OR "AZO DYES that are derivatives by diazotisation when used in cosmetic hair, eyelash and eyebrow dye products where the percentage of free carcinogen as listed in Schedule 7 is no more than 0.001%." - TGA Scheduling Medicines & Poisons
- Solvent Dyes
- How to sell your products legally
- How to get started selling soap or cosmetic products
- Congo Red - azo dye carcinogenic properties, no longer in use
- Congo Red NICNAS Permitted For use:
CAS No: 573-58-0 no restrictions: C.I. 22120
- Sudan Black NICNAS Permitted for use: CAS No: 4197-25-5 /C.I. 26150 not restricted.
FRPs Formaldehyde Releasing Preservatives
- EWG High skin allergy, irritation and developmental warnings.
- Australia NICNAS; not restricted for use
Formaldehyde donors: Human health tier II assessment, July 2014. No usage restrctions.
- AOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics); Known human toxicant or allergen.
- SCCS Science Committee; Known human skin sensitizer toxicant or allergen.
- Quaternium-15 is a formaldehyde-releasing preservative used in many cosmetics including foundation, concealers, bronzers, makeup remover, soaps, shampoos, body powders, as well as disinfectants and commercial use.
- "Quaternium-15 is safe as a cosmetic ingredient at concentrations not exceeding those presently in use" max 1% by European standards. - Journals - SagePub.com
- "The safety data sheet also shows that quaternium-15 exposure via inhalation may cause damaging effects on the respiratory tract. According to the guidelines, inhaling the toxic compound may result in respiratory tract irritation. Furthermore, the harmful chemical is found to cause severe skin irritation and dermatitis." - Chemicals.News
- "Quaternium-15 is one of the most widely used preservatives (Rietschel & Fowler, 2008). It is not surprising that it is also the most common preservative that causes ACD (Marks et al., 2002; Zug et al., 2009). It affected 10.3% of patients that were patch tested in 2005–2006 (Zug et al., 2009). Quaternium-15 is the top allergen in hand ACD (Warshaw et al., 2007). It is the sixth most common allergen to cause eyelid dermatitis (Rietschel et al., 2007). This is a broad-spectrum preservative that is effective against bacteria, fungi, molds, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and P. cepacia (Maier et al., 2009; Marks et al., 2002). Quaternium-15 releases the highest amount of free formaldehyde when compared to other FRPs (Maier et al., 2009). Quaternium-15 0.1% concentration (1,000 ppm) releases 100 ppm of free formaldehyde; this amount is enough to induce dermatitis in a patient with formaldehyde sensitivity (Frosch et al., 2006)." - MedScape.com
- "Formaldehyde-releasing preservative used in cosmetics. It can aggravate skin, as can all preservatives, although quaternium-15’s ability to do so is very low if the amount in a product is less than 0.2%." - PaulasChoice.com
Formalin is commonly found in nail hardeners, keratin hair straighteners, shampoo and conditioners, baby wash including liquid soaps and liquid baby wash, cosmetics, hand gels, toothpaste, cream cleansers and eyelash glue.
"High levels of exposure to formaldehyde, particularly in cosmetic products, can cause:
- sensory irritation
- skin sensitisation
- breathing difficulties
- cancer, in circumstances where there is chronic high exposure." - Productsafety.gov.au ACCC
- Banned in cosmetics in Japan and Sweden.
- Banned in the United States
- Restricted in Canada.
- NICNAS Australia - Human Health Tier II assessment November 2006, Not restricted.
- "The most common cause of eyelid dermatitis is the formaldehyde in nail polish," says dermatologist Dr. Marsha Gordon. "After you polish your nails, there is a day or two when the finish is not rock hard, and that's when formaldehyde may be released. Your hands may not show redness because that skin is tough, but when you touch your eyes while washing or moisturizing, you can end up with dermatitis there." - MarieClaire
- Productsafety.gov.au ACCC Australia
- Naturally occurring and commonly used in the form of formalin, it inhibits the growth of microorganisms. Other names: Formic aldehyde; Methaldehyde; Methanal; Oxomethane; Oxymethylene.
- Multiple health concerns, mainly skin irritation. Commonly used in colour cosmetics and liquid hair and baby care products, hand sanitisers, paint and carpets, nail products and all kinds of household cleaning agents.
- Approximately 20% of cosmetics and
personal care products, contain a formaldehyde releasing preservatives.
In 1996, the production of formaldehyde was estimated at 8.7 million
tons per year.
- NICNAS Australia; Toxicity Category I for eye irritation and Toxicity Category II for skin irritation.
- "Low levels of formaldehyde are found in many consumer products, but high levels of exposure to the chemical are unsafe. Always check ingredients labels and follow care instructions when using products that contain formaldehyde." - ACCC - "High levels of exposure to formaldehyde, particularly in cosmetic products, can cause: sensory irritation, skin sensitisation, breathing difficulties, asthma, cancer, in circumstances where there is chronic high exposure."
- "the highest risk is from the air when formaldehyde is inhaled from breathing, and occurs more frequently in people who routinely use formaldehyde in their jobs." - FDA
- "What are the short-term health effects of formaldehyde exposure? When formaldehyde is present in the air at levels exceeding 0.1 ppm, some individuals may experience adverse effects such as watery eyes; burning sensations in the eyes, nose, and throat; coughing; wheezing; nausea; and skin irritation." - Cancer.gov
Diazolidinyl Urea CAS No: 78491-02-8
WHAT IS IT?
- "Typical allergic contact dermatitis reactions may occur, however, imidazolidinyl urea is not a common cause of contact allergy when compared with other preservatives. However, if you have sensitivity to imidazolidinyl urea, these products are far from being hypoallergenic and should be avoided." - DermNet NZ
- NCBI "Contact allergy to diazolidinyl urea may or may not be due to formaldehyde sensitivity" - PubMed.gov
- "Discontinuation of use of products containing Imidazolidinyl Urea should result in improvement and/or resolution of your dermatitis. Imidazolidinyl Urea allergic patients should avoid this preservative by examining the ingredient labels before purchase. Imidazolidinyl Urea is frequently found in products that carry the ‘hypoallergenic’ label. Here is a partial list of products known to have contained Imidazolidinyl Urea in the past." - SkinSafe.com
- "known for being non-toxic, non-irritating and a relatively non-sensitizing agent, but is a formaldehyde-releasing agent." - ContactAllergy.com
- "Imidazolidinyl urea is known to release formaldehyde, which is used globally by scientists and morticians in preserving corpses and body parts. Formaldehyde is toxic to humans and may cause many negative side effects." - Naturalpedia.com
- "The toxic preservative is also detrimental to bone and muscle health.
According to experts, diazolidinyl urea exposure may raise the odds of
joint and chest pain, fatigue and dizziness. The compound is also shown
to trigger immune dysfunction and eye damage." - Naturalpedia.com
Toluenesulfonamide Formaldehyde Resin
- The Allergens In Cosmetics
- Nail Cosmetics Allergy "In addition to causing allergic and irritant contact dermatitis reactions, some ingredients of nail cosmetics may also cause secondary nail infections such as paronychia, onycholysis, onychia and severe and prolonged paraesthesia. These conditions can be extremely painful, long-lasting and debilitating."
- Nail polish causes contact dermatitis
- An outbreak of contact dermatitis from toluene sulfonamide formaldehyde resin in a nail harder, Researchgate.net
- Safety Report
- Perianal contact dermatitis caused by nail lacquer allergy
Toluenesulfonamide, formaldehyde polymer.
- NICNAS Australia classifies it as a "Common Skin Sensitiser" There are no restrictions specific to the use of these polymers in Australia. There are no Australian exposure standards.
- International restrictions apply 0.1% to 5%
- "Other frequent causes of cosmetic-related contact allergic reactions
were toluenesulfonamide formaldehyde resin in nail hardener and/or nail
lacquer (15 patients [12.6%])." - Scinapse.io/papers
- NICNAS Australia: "Polymers containing formaldehyde monomers: Human health tier II assessment: used in various coatings, adhesives and automotive." And, "reported cosmetic uses including as film forming agents, in nail conditioning, in skin conditioning, in hair conditioning, and as antimicrobial agents." And, "reported domestic uses including as antimicrobial preservatives in household cleaning products (dishwashing and laundry liquids, surface cleaners and polishes), in specialty paints, adhesives, sealants, lubricants, and wall insulation." And, "reported commercial uses as binders, defoaming agents, epoxy hardeners, and in the production of resins for the manufacture of pressed wood products, textile treatments, paper treating and coating." And, "non-industrial uses as antiseptics, fungicides, bactericides, and fungicides."
- TGA Poisons Standard Schedule 6 -
"human therapeutic use, oral hygiene preparations, nail hardener cosmetic preparations containing 5 per cent or more of free formaldehyde; in nail hardener cosmetic preparations containing 0.2 per cent or less of free formaldehyde when labelled with the statement: PROTECT CUTICLES WITH GREASE OR OIL. in aerosol sprays for cosmetic use containing 0.005 per cent or more of free formaldehyde; nail hardening products at a maximum concentration of 5 % in ready for use preparation; if the concentration exceeds 0.05 %, the label must indicate 'Contains formaldehyde';"
SCA endorses products with the Allergy Certified logo, that restrict DMD to 0.074% or less.
- Australia NICNAS; Tier II - no restrictions.
- Japan: permitted upto 0.75% in rinse-off products with a warning label: Contact Deramtitis Institute
- Cosmetic Ingredient Review: Human irritant - strong evidence (only for products for use around the eyes, on the skin, or may be aerosolized (airborne)) - EWG
- USA and EU: allowed upto 1.5% without restrictions.- EWG
- EWG High hazard warning.
- DMDM hydantoin is a formaldehyde donor: "DMDM is a preservative in cosmetics and personal care products. DMDM hydantoin
is also an antimicrobial agent used in cosmetics and personal care
products. As an antimicrobial, it can help prevent the growth of fungi,
yeast and harmful bacteria that can make people sick or give them
rashes, for example." - ChemicalSafetyFacts.com - continued:
- "The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR), an independent expert scientific panel established by the Personal Care Products Council, also has evaluated the scientific data and concluded that DMDM hydantoin is safe as a cosmetic ingredient at current levels of use – 0.074 percent, or less. In 2005, the CIR Expert Panel considered available new data on DMDM hydantoin and reaffirmed its safety conclusion. The Cosmetics Directive of the European Union also has approved DMDM hydantoin as a preservative in cosmetics and personal care products at a maximum concentration of 0.6 percent"
RESEARCH & RECOMMENDED ARTICLES:
- "The use of a cream containing 0.25% DMDM hydantoin in these 4 patients still caused dermatitis in 1 and provoked itching in another. An increase in the use of DMDM hydantoin in cosmetic products will also inevitable increase the risk of cosmetic dermatitis in consumers allergic to formaldehyde." - NCBI Patch test reactivity to DMDM hydanton.
- Bronopol is a known formaldehyde releaser in cosmetics, PSIC.
- NICNAS not restricted for use. Tier I assessment indicated that it needed further investigation. Tier II assessment November 2014.
- EU Cosmetic Directive 76/768/EEC Annex VI Part 1, List of preservatives allowed (at up to 0.1%);
- New Zealand Cosmetic Products Group Standard—Schedule 7: Preservatives cosmetic products may contain with restrictions;
- Health Canada List of prohibited and restricted cosmetic ingredients (The Cosmetic Ingredient ‘Hotlist’)—Permitted at concentrations equal to or less than 0.1%. Not permitted in formulations that contain amines or amides; and
- US Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Cosmetic ingredients found safe, with qualifications—should not be used in cosmetic products in which N-nitroso compounds can be formed.
- "Bronopol allergic contact dermatitis. Bronopol (2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1, 3-diol) is an antimicrobial compound widely used as a preservative, primarily in cosmetic formulations. Analysis of patch tests performed on our patients revealed an incidence of 12.5% relevant positive results to 0.5% and/or 0.25% bronopol." - NCBI
- Bronopol is found in an array of household products from cleaning agents to personal care products including: "Toiletries and Cosmetics; Blushers, Cleansing lotions, Creams, Eyebrow pencils, Formaldehyde releaser, Foundations, Hair conditioners, Hair dressings, Humidifiers, Mascara, Moisturizers, Shampoos, Deodorants
Other Names: Methanol, (phenylmethoxy)-
benzyl hemiformal (phenylmethoxy)methanol
- NICNAS Australia: Formaldehyde donour, Tier II Human Health, No restrictions *Listed on the Poisons Standard.
- EWG Rating high
- "Benzylhemiformal is found in oils, glues, adhesives, paper products, textiles, polishes, waxes, detergents, soaps, and make-up remover. It is a formaldehyde-releaser and contact allergies may be triggered by this substance or by cross reactions from the formaldehyde." - Contact Dermatitis Institute
- International EU; restrited to 0.2%
- Widley considered safe, low health hazard.
- Synthetic biodegradable preservative that is suitable for Greywater and septic tanks.
- Often used as an alternative to parabens
- Formaldehyde may be found in cosmetic products even when unlabelled
- METHANOL - Consumer Products
- Preservatives in cosmetics
Iisothiazolinone & derivatives
SCA endorses products with the Allergy Certified logo inaccordance with international restrictions; 0.01% or less for leave-on and rinse-off products; less then 1% for cleaning products. Safety advice should be included for products containing isothiazoline derivatives - "not suitable for sensitive allergy prone skin" and, "not suitable for children under 3 years of age" and, "discontinue use if irritation ocurrs".
- Australia TGA - Restricted overseas; leave-on and rinse-off products 0.01%, cleaning products <1%. Listed on the Poisons Standard.
- European SCCS; Known human immune toxicant or allergen; Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmetics.
- GermanBfr; Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmetics.
- Canada; restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Use is restricted in Canadian cosmetics.
- Japan; Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use,
concentration, or manufacturing restrictions.
- Cosmetic Ingredient Review; Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidence.
- Australia NICNAS; Warning Statement: 28 (Over) (Repeated) exposure may cause sensitisation;- No usage restrictions.
- EWG; Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs); Other LOW concerns: Data gaps, Ecotoxicology, Neurotoxicity.
CAS No: 122-99-6
Other names: 2-Phenoxyethanol, Phenylglycol ether.
- Phenoxyethanol - Medically reviewed by Cynthia Cobb, APRN — Written by Cammy Pedroja, PhD on November 27, 2018: article for HealthLine.com - When asked: Is phenoxyethanol safe? Cynthia says that "Deciding whether or not you want to use products with this chemical is a complicated decision. There’s conflicting data about its safety. Most of the concern stems from recorded incidents of bad skin reactions and nervous system interaction in infants."
- FDA permits phenoxyethanol in cosmetics and indirectly in food.
- The Cosmetics Ingredient Review agrees it is safe up to 1% or less usage.
- European Commission on Health & Food Safety also agree that a 1% or less usage is safe for adults.
- Japan has a 1% maximum usage restriction for phenoxyethanol.
- Australia, NICNAS - has no restrictions.
SCA endorses products with the Allergy Certified logo, that contain 0.3% or less Triclosan (in accordance with Australian law).
- Banned by FDA 2016
- Big name brands plan to phase out triclosan that linked to hormone disruption.
- NICNAS notification obligations may apply to importantion; list of priority existing chemicals last update; January 2009
- Restricted in cosmetics in the European Union, Canada, Japan and Australia to 0.3%; classified as expected to be toxic or harmful by Environment Canada Domestic Substances.
- Known endocrine disruptor and skin irritant; especially thyroid and reproductive hormones. Studies raise concerns that triclosan contributes to making bacteria antibiotic-resistant. Tricolson can be found in toothpastes, antibacterial soaps and deodorants. Commonly used in baby care products including body wash, toothpaste and shampoo. SafeWork Australia's HSIS states "Toxic by inhalation (R23)"; "Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin (R36/37/38)"; "Very toxic to aquatic organisms (R50)"; and "May cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment (R53)".
- Contamination concerns; dioxins
- CDDs are a family of 75 chemically related compounds known as chlorinated dioxins; "EPA: Probable human carcinogen, based on limited evidence in humans, and sufficient evidence in animals. EPA: Assessment Underway. IARC: Carcinogenic to humans . NTP: Known to be a human carcinogen"
- David Suzuki, Dirty Dozen
- Selecting products for sensitive skin.
- Preservatives in cosmetics
- Propylparaben is banned in Denmark in products for children up to 3 years old.
- NICNAS Tier II Environment and Human Health - No restrictions for use - no record of assessment.
- Parabens and breast cancer; "A new study has found that chemicals called parabens can spur the growth of certain types of breast cancer cells" - WebMD.
- "Parabens are chemicals that have been shown to have estrogen-like properties, and estrogen is one of the hormones involved in the development of breast cancer." - Dr Mercola.
- Parabens get a bad name because they are synthetic, In an article for Allergic Living, Dr Sandy Skotnicki, Dermatologist, advises that they are safe to use on normal healthy skin. "The one area where parabens can cause problems is with inflamed skin. This is known as the “Paraben Paradox”. In essence, parabens almost never cause a problem on normal skin, but can cause allergic dermatitis when used on active skin disease, such as wounds or eczema. This is why parabens are never used to preserve topical hydrocortisone creams or antibiotic ointments."
- Parabens prevent bacteria from growing in products like moisturisers that repeatedly come into contact with germs from your hands as you apply it to your face. "The American Chemical Society estimates that parabens are in about 85% of personal care products -- everything from shampoo to shaving cream. Researchers believe most of us get our greatest exposure from these products as they’re absorbed through the skin." - Brenda Goodman, MA
dimethyl phthalate (DMP):
dimethyl phthalate (DMP):
- "DEHP is listed on the Canadian Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist (Health Canada, 2015) as prohibited for use in cosmetics." - NICNAS
- "According to relevant Australian industry sources, concentrations of DMP in domestic detergents, cosmetics, perfumes and personal care products are highly variable and range from 0.00004% to 34% (in combination with DMP's analogue [structurally very similar compound] diethyl phthalate—DEP)." - NICNAS March 2019
- "Phthalates are a group of chemicals used in hundreds of products, such as toys, vinyl flooring and wall covering, detergents, lubricating oils, food packaging, pharmaceuticals, blood bags and tubing, and personal care products, such as nail polish, hair sprays, aftershave lotions, soaps, shampoos, perfumes and other fragrance preparations." - FDA
- dibutyl phthalate (DPB): Nail polish
- dimethyl phthalate (DMP): Hair spray
- diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP): Banned
- diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP): Cosmetics
- CHOICE.com.au - (Phthalates) "have been found to have endocrine disruption effects, and have been linked with endometriosis
and early puberty in girls, and reproductive organ abnormalities and
reduced fertility in males. They can also act on the thyroid, and have
been linked with obesity" - Note that there appears to be an error in thsi article: Restrictions apply to childrens toys, not cosmetics and household consumer goods. You can verify this by search for each CAS number above.
- NICNAS advises that it is not restricted for use in Australian products; the EU Cosmetic Directive states: maximum concentration applied to hair must not exceed 1.25 % (w/w); and (b) Hair lotions and shampoos— maximum authorised concentration in the finished cosmetic product of 0.5 % (w/w).- NICNAS Chemical Information:
- ASEAN Cosmetic
Directive List of substances which cosmetic products
must not contain except subject to restrictions.
- New Zealand Cosmetic Products Group Cosmetics must not contain except subject to the restrictions and conditions laid down;
- Health Canada List of prohibited and restricted cosmetic ingredients (The Cosmetic Ingredient ‘Hotlist’); and Chile list of Cosmetic Ingredients with limited use or concentration.
- The chemical is classified as hazardous with the risk phrase 'Harmful if swallowed'
- Safe Work Australia - 'Irritating to skin' and 'Irritating to eyes' (Xi; R36) in HSIS.
- Repeated dose Toxicity: Human patch-testing using the chemical elicited allergic skin reactions in 0.7–0.8 % of 1694 dermatitis patients.
Synthetic Alcohol & Hand Sanitisers
- Not restricted for use in Australia, classified as hazardrous. Restricted for use in Canada, Denmark, Iceland, Germany, Norway, Sweden, Spain, Switzerland, UK, France and USA.
(details not specified), hair sprays and colours, printing inks and
surface coatings, cleaning, washing, solvents; International use: up to
10% in lotions, perfumes, shampoos, skin cleansers, nail polishes,
removers, deodorants, body oils, shampoos, hair dye rinses preparations
and permanent wave lotions, and skin lotions. As well as anti-freeze
and fuel additives and tanning products and much more.
- Other Names: Ethyl alcohol; Alcohol; Anhydrol; Ethyl hydrate; Methyl carbinol.
"NICNAS Reported Cosmetic Use and domestic use as a cleaning/washing
agent; as petrol additives/substitutes such as ethanol blended fuels and solvent"
- "Cosmetics fragrance, antifoaming, masking, colouring, dyes, odour agent. Listed on Australia's Poison Standard. Regarded as irritating to skin and eyes.
- "Contact dermatitis is caused by a substance you're exposed to that irritates your skin or triggers an allergic reaction. The substance could be one of thousands of known allergens and irritants. Some of these substances may cause both irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis." - MayoClinic.org
- "Allergic reactions to alcohol-based formulations may represent true allergy to the alcohol, or allergy to an impurity or aldehyde metabolite, or allergy to another product constituent. Allergic contact dermatitis or immediate contact urticarial reactions may be caused by ethanol or isopropanol. Allergic reactions may be caused by compounds that may be present as inactive ingredients in alcohol-based handrubs, including fragrances, benzyl alcohol, stearyl or isostearyl alcohol, phenoxyethanol, myristyl alcohol, propylene glycol, parabens, or benzalkonium chloride." - Skin reactions related to hand hygiene, NCBI, 14.2.
- SD alcohol functions as a cosmetic astringent in skin care products; "Specially denatured (SD) alcohol is a mixture of ethanol with a denaturing agent. Ethanol is considered broadly toxic and linked to birth defects following excessive oral ingestion." - EWG
- Denatured alcohol, in cosmetics is Ethanol, also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, or alcohol that is made unfit for human consumption. "It often contains water and a bittering agent (Bitrex
or Aversion which are denatonium benzoate or denatonium saccharide),
but other chemicals are sometimes used. Other common additives include
(but are not limited to) isopropanol, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl
isobutyl ketone, pyridine, benzene (known carcinogen), diethyl phthalate, and naphtha." - ThoughtCo.com
- Isopropyl, isopropanol and ethyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol, ethanol or surgical spirit); "It is common to find isopropyl rubbing alcohol at concentrations from 68% alcohol in water up to 99% alcohol in water. The 70% rubbing alcohol is highly effective as a disinfectant. Isopropyl alcohol is toxic, in part because the body metabolizes it into acetone." - ThoughtCo.com
Oral Care & Personal Hygiene
- Restricted in Japan & Canada
- NICNAS Australia; reports that it is listed on The Poisons Standard: considered toxic at 1% or more.
- Benzenamine p-chloroaniline (CAS No. 106-47-8); Toxic if swollowed, restricted in the EU to 0.1%, no restrictions in Australia; found in cosmetic ingredients, such as chlorhexidine and triclocarban in deodorant soaps, sticks, sprays, roll-ons and mouthwashes.
- Poisons Standard Schedule 7:
- "Contact reactions to oral hygiene products affect all age groups. Toothpastes consist of flavourings, preservatives, colouring agents, abrasives, detergents, binding agents, humectants, antiseptics, antacids and fluoride salts." - Chlorhexidine Oral Mouth Wash
- "Chlorhexidine is a common ingredient of mouthwashes as it kills bacteria. Prolonged use of a chlorhexidine-containing mouthwash can cause discolouration of the teeth and dental restorations. Chlorhexidine can also affect the sensation of taste." - Dermnetnz.org
SLS & SLES
SCA endorses products with the Allergy Certified logo, that do not contain SLS & SLES.
- Found in 90% of personal care products and cleaning agents including foaming products: such as soaps and shampoos as well as toothpaste and bubble bath: "Sodium laureth sulfate and sodium laurel sulfate are detergents used in everything from shampoo and body wash to baby soap — so if you’re experiencing chronic eye and/or skin irritation, you may want to try giving these products a break. “I have known these chemicals to cause rashes, blemishes, and eye irritation,” says O’Connor. “Not to mention, they are incredibly drying to your hair and skin.” - EverydayHealth.com
- Canada - suspected to be toxic or harmful
- Europe - Banned.
- "Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is a
common ingredient found in soaps and shampoos. ... And while it's not
technically an allergen because it doesn't provoke a reaction from the
immune system, SLS can cause contact dermatitis and aggravate eczema by weakening that oily barrier on our skin." And, "While SLS is useful for breaking up greasy foreign substances, it also
breaks up the layer of oil that keeps our skin from drying out. And
while it's not technically an allergen because it doesn't provoke a
reaction from the immune system, SLS can cause contact dermatitis and
aggravate eczema by weakening that oily barrier on our skin. This means
that SLS can usher other allergic elements into your body. After
repeated exposure to these elements, you may develop reactions to things
you weren't allergic to before." - Top 5 allergens in soaps that cause dermatitis by Gallagher Finn, Health.HowStuffWorks.com
DEA, cocamide DEA and lauramide DEA
SCA endorses products with the Allergy Certified logo, that do not contain DEA.
CAS No: 8051-30-7 Other names: Coconut oil, diethanolamine condensate.
- "Cocamide DEA is on the Proposition 65 list because it can cause cancer. Exposure to cocamide DEA may increase the risk of cancer." - p65warnings.ca.gov
- NICNAS Australia Not Restricted for use: "The chemical DEA has moderate acute oral, and low inhalation and dermal toxicity. It is a skin and severe eye irritant in rabbits." And, "diethanolamine is not classified for carcinogenicity."
- EU - "List of substances prohibited in cosmetic products" (CosIng).
- "the Expert Panel concluded that Cocamide DEA is safe as used in rinse-off products (50% or less) and safe at concentrations 10% in leave-on cosmetic products. It was also concluded that Cocamide DEA should not be used as an ingredient in cosmetic products in which N-nitroso compounds are formed." - Journals.Sagepub.com
- "Cocamide DEA, or cocamide diethanolamine, is a diethanolamide made by reacting the mixture of fatty acids from coconut oils with diethanolamine." - Wikipedia.com
- "The concentration of diethanolamide in these preparations ranged from 1 to 25%" - NCBI 1985
- "Allergic reactions to eating coconut have been reported, but are relatively rare. By contrast, contact allergic dermatitis to coconut products is more common. Sensitisation to coconut pollen has been reported." - Allergy.org.au
- "Like sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), coconut diethanolamide can break down skin's oily barrier layer and dry it out, but certain people develop more intense allergic reactions to it. Since coconut diethanolamide is a common ingredient in skin care products such as barrier creams and hand protection foams, sensitizing can happen rapidly. You may begin to develop reactions after using a product for two or three months." - HowStuffWorks.com
CAS No: 134910-86-4 (TetrachlorohydrexGly)
Deodorants; "antiperspirants, deodorants and astringents in skin fresheners and other personal care products." - NICNAS
NICNAS reports commercial use in; surface treatments, water purification, dyeing textiles, odour blockers, cleaning and washing agents and adhesives.
- "Aluminum chloride has many industrial uses, but is also used in deodorants. It plugs up sweat glands and closes pores to prevent sweating. In rare cases, aluminum chloride exposure can cause Frey's Syndrome, which results in excessive sweating on the face." And, "Side Effects. Aluminum chloride is a definite life saver in the sweating department, but there are some side effects. When it comes into contact with skin it can cause burning, stinging, itching, and tingling." - Study.com
- "Aluminum chloride is the partially neutralized form used in cosmetic antiperspirants, while aluminum chloride hexahydrate is among the most effective antiperspirants currently available. Several studies have shown that aluminum salts cause an obstruction of the distal sweat gland ducts." - SweatHelp.org
- Cosmetic allergy is common: "Deodorants and antiperspirants are two of the most commonly used cosmetic products, with millions of consumers applying these products to their axilla everyday. Deodorants are used to mask odor; whereas, antiperspirants are used to reduce the amount of sweat produced." - NCBI. And, "aluminum exposure from deodorant use has been blamed for the rising incidence of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). A recent review of 46 studies looking at aluminum exposure and risk of developing AD concluded that aluminum is, in fact, a risk factor for the development of disease."
BLEACHING AGENT; Benzoyl Peroxide; "Synonym(s): DIBENZOYL PEROXIDE; PEROXIDE, DIBENZOYL; ACNEGEL; AZTEC BPO; BENZOPEROXIDE; BENZOYL PEROXIDE (ACGIH:OSHA) ; BENZOYL SUPEROXIDE; BENZOYLPEROXID (GERMAN) ; BENZOYLPEROXYDE (DUTCH) ; BZF-60; CADAT BPO" - EWG
- European Union; banned in all over the counter skin care products as well as food; (only for products for use around the mouth; products for use on the lips; products that may be aerosolized (airborne)).
- Australia NICNAS: not restricted for use. Human health Tier II, July 2016. Refer to the TGA Poisons Standard.
- Japan: Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in
cosmetics (only for product not intended as hair dye/bleach) EWG
- Canada; Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use,
concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Use is restricted in
Canadian cosmetics (only for products for use on the lips) EWG
- CosIng; Restricted in cosmetics use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions.
- EWG Chemical Rating High concern for irritation of the skin, eyes & lungs
- A known skin sensitiser, irritating to the skin, eyes and lungs. In cosmetics, it is believed that this compound works by destroying the bacteria associated with acne. It works by continuous daily treatment, but when you stop using it the acne comes back.
- The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) "says products containing the ingredients benzoyl peroxide or salicylic acid can cause rare but serious and potentially life-threatening allergic reactions or severe irritation."
- World Health Organisation "Common side effects (benzoyl peroxide) are skin irritation, dryness, or peeling"
- Human exposure studies "a reaction occurred in 70% of subjects after use of occlusive patches containing a 5% or 10% concentration." - TOXNET
- "This chemical is used as an antistatic agent and emulsifier in cosmetics. It can be found in products such as body lotions, creams, shampoos, conditioners and hair relaxers. Further research may identify additional product or industrial usages of this chemical."- Chemotechnique Diagnostics Patient Info
- EU usage restrictions apply: "Potentially toxic; contains toxic constituents."
- NICNAS Australia, No restrictions.
- "It is concluded that the presence of oleamidopropyl dimethylamine in a concentration of 0.3% in stay-on cosmetics, especially when applied to damaged skin and/or the periorbital area, bears a definite risk of the induction and elicitation of contact allergic reactions." - NCBI
- "Oleamidopropyl dimethylamine. The cationic emulsifier oleamidopropyl dimethylamine has been responsible for many cases of cosmetic sensitisation in the Netherlands. Of 119 patients with proven cosmetic-related allergic contact dermatitis, 13 (11%) were allergic to oleamidopropyl dimethylamine from a baby body lotion containing 0.3%." - NCBI
- Known for causing severe irritations to the skin, eyes and mucous membranes: "In the cosmetic industry, this ingredient serves as a precursor to various other ingredients, mainly solvents, surfactants and skin/hair conditioners. It's commonly used to create lauryl dimethylamine oxide (common soap ingredient), stearamidopropyl dimethylamine (common hair conditioner ingredient), behenamidopropyl dimethylamine behenate (common anti-static ingredient) and oleamidopropyl dimethylamine (common emulsifier). It can be found in mostly cleansers and hair products like shampoo & conditioner." - TruthInAging.com
Key Allergens Hotlist
Other names: Cinnamic acid, methyl ester; Methyl cinnamate, methyl ester.
either natural or synthetic. Benzyl cinnamate is an esther of cinnamic acid and benzyl alcohol.
- CosIng - Restricted in Cosmetics
- International Fragrance Association Codes & Standards; recommended restrictions.
- Benzyl Cinnamate: The presence of the substance must be indicated in the list of ingredients when its concentration exceeds: 0.001% in leave-on products, 0.01% in rinse-off products
- Australia NICNAS - no restriction.
- "A cinnamate is a compound chemically related to cinnamon oil and other cinnamon-related compounds that are used widely as flavourings and fragrances in many toiletries and cosmetics. Cinnamates are also potent UVB absorbers and therefore used in sunscreen agents and colour cosmetics with sun protection factor qualities." - DermNetnz.org
- An "important function of cinnamic acid derivatives in cosmetics is UV protection. Ester derivatives such as ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (octinoxate), isoamyl p-methoxycinnamte (amiloxiate), octocrylene and cinoxate are used in cosmetics all over the world as UV filters. However, their maximum concentrations in cosmetic products are restricted due to their adverse effects, which include contact and a photocontact allergies, phototoxic contact dermatitis, contact dermatitis, estrogenic modulation and generation of reactive oxygen species." - NCBI
- NICNAS No usage restrictions apply.
- The European Food Safety Authority EFSA classifies benzophenone as a known toxicant because it can cause liver hypertrophy in rats at low doses. "Found in: Lip balm, nail polish, foundations, baby sunscreens, fragrance, shampoo, conditioner, hair spray, moisturizers, and foundation"
- The European Food Safety Authority EFSA classifies benzophenone as a known toxicant because it can cause liver hypertrophy in rats at low doses. "Found in: Lip balm, nail polish, foundations, baby sunscreens, fragrance, shampoo, conditioner, hair spray, moisturizers, and foundation"
- "Many chemical sunscreens have been linked to an increased risk of skin cancer. Among the most hazardous are those containing oxybenzone, synthetic fragrances and retinyl palmitate (vitamin A)" - Dr Mercola
SCA endorses products with the Allergy Certified logo, that do not contain oxybenzone.
CAS No: 131-57-7
- NICNAS No usage restrictions apply.
- Oxybenzone, or benzonephenone-3, is one of the most common sunscreen chemical filters that is found. It forms colorless crystals that are readily soluble and provides UV protectionm.
- "Many chemical sunscreens have been linked to an increased risk of skin cancer. Among the most hazardous are those containing oxybenzone, synthetic fragrances and retinyl palmitate (vitamin A)" - Dr Mercola
- "According to EWG, oxybenzone has been detected in nearly every American’s blood. Studies have shown that oxybenzone may have an impact on the endocrine system (the glands in your body that make hormones), Andrews said, adding that in one instance, increased levels of oxybenzone in adolescent boys led to lower testosterone levels." - EWG in an article for HuffingtonPost.com.au
Allergens Requiring Bold Text Labelling
Current cosmetic labelling law does not require product labels to highlight allergens in bold text (this only applies to food labels). Brands that license SCA's Allergy certified seal, pledge to always provide Safety Advice to consumers; by highlighting potential allergens in bold text, followed by stating the appropriate safety advice such as: 'this product contains potential allergens' or 'allergens are highlighted in bold' and 'always patch test before use' and 'discontinue use if irritation ocurs'. These terms protect both the manufactuerer and consumers alike. Consumers with allergies should always read the product label, and manufacturers should always provide appropriate safety advice to consumers, provided on each product and point of sale. Due to a lack of evidence, the following potential allergens are optional for brands to provide allergy and safety advice:
Lanolin, Coconut Surfactants, Animal Tallow, Cocamidopropyl Betaine, AHA Acids, Propylene glycol, Ethylene glycol, Propylene glycol, Hydrochloric acid, Acetone, Tetrachloroethylene, Trisodium NTA, Adverse Reactions To Essential Oils,
- "Pure beeswax has not generally been shown to cause allergic reactions in people. But sometimes propolis remains mixed with the beeswax when it is harvested" - DIANA HERMANN, MAcOM, L.Ac.Licensed Acupuncturist, NCCAOM Board Certified Herbalist Founder of Zi Zai Dermatology Zizaidermatology.com
- "Propolis is commonly used in cosmetic and medicinal preparations because
of its antiseptic, antiinflammatory, and anesthetic properties. Its
therapeutic qualities have been well documented. However, 1.2 to 6.6% of
patients who are patch-tested for dermatitis are sensitive to propolis.
The main allergens are 3-methyl-2-butenyl caffeate and phenylethyl
caffeate. Benzyl salicylate and benzyl cinnamate are less frequent
sensitizers. Propolis is found in a number of "natural" products,
including lip balms, cosmetics, lotions and ointments, shampoos,
conditioners, and toothpastes. Dermatologists should consider patch
testing with propolis in users of such remedies." - MEDSCAPE.COM
Soy & Wheat Derivatives
The 2015 Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel concluded that their studies indicate that soy, and hydrolised cosmetic ingredients, are unlikely to cause skin irritation or allergy.
- Cosmetics & Gluten Sensitivity: "They are highly processed and purified, and it is extremely unlikely that any trace of gluten would get through the manufacturing process and end up on a users skin. Even if it were to do so there’d be very little chance of it getting across the skin. So I’d have to say that logically people with a known sensitivity to gluten can use products with wheat derivatives in them without fear. But us humans aren’t that logical and I can understand why they might not want to take the chance", he also advises to especially exercise caution with children that have allergies - Wheat Alergies by Cosmetic Scientist www.colinsbeautypages.co.uk
- "Can Gluten Be Absorbed Through Skin?
Now according to the Mayo Clinic, gluten can’t be absorbed through the skin. Since the gluten proteins are very large, it’s virtually impossible for it to be absorbed. The main issue arises when it’s accidentally swallowed or ingested. That’s why it’s so important to use gluten free products are your mouth such as lipstick and lip balm." - Adam Bryan, Urbantastebud.com
RESOURCES & RECOMMENDED ARTICLES:
Nut Derived Oils & Other Proteins
- "Studies have found that contact allergic reactions can occur due to exposure to allergens in cosmetics. But these reactions only occur if the relevant proteins are intact, so in general, the more processed and refined the cosmetic, the smaller the likelihood of a reaction." - Nut Allergies & Shampoo
- "Currently, various wheat-derived substances, including multiple forms of wheat protein (such as gluten), are processed through hydrolysis, as are other protein hydrolysates such as collagen, keratin, elastin, milk, almond, and silk, and used in myriad skin and hair products, such as soaps, bath gels, creams, and hair repair formulas.3-6 In particular, wheat – like oat – is incorporated into personal care products for the moisturizing benefits it confers.1 The positive and negative effects of the incorporation of wheat into skin care as well as the cutaneous effects of wheat supplementation are the focus of this column." - Dermatology News: Wheat in skincare by Leslie S. Baumann MD
- "More confusing, someone with a nut allergy won’t necessarily be allergic to a nut oil in a product. It’s the protein in the nut that causes an allergic response, and some manufacturers say they remove the protein from the oil. This can involve chemicals or heat — an important distinction for a consumer interested in a natural product." - Alexandra Zissu, NY Times, Allergies Can Be Natural Too
RESOURCES & RECOMMENDED ARTICLES:
- IMAP - Tier II - Environment.
- NICNAS No restrictions for use.
- "This ingredient and related ingredients are all called quats—”quaterny ammonium compounds” that are used in a wide range of products as preservatives, surfactants, and germicides. Some are also used as conditioning agents, giving skin and hair a slippery and smooth feel." - AnneMarieSkincare
- Disinfectant products; "effective against most vegetative bacteria and enveloped viruses, and some fungi." - Science Direct
- "In addition to harming germs, quats are lung irritants and can contribute to asthma and other breathing problems. They irritate skin too – and can lead to rashes. (This is one reason why packages of antibacterial wipes strongly recommend washing your hands after use. A factor that really takes the convenience out of using a wipe in the first place!)" - www.womensvoices.org
- NICNAS Human Health Tier II
- "Carcinogenic to humans; there is convincing epidemiologic evidence of a casual association... Demonstrates a potential hazard to humans" - EPA IRIS Assessment for Ammonia; Toxic Review Report
- "Ammonia and bleach used when cleaning at home could cause changes in the lung tissue and accelerated decline of lung health." - Authors of the University of Bergen lung study
- “Ammonia is a powerful irritant,” says Donna Kasuska, chemical engineer and president of ChemConscious, Inc., a risk-management consulting company. “It’s going to affect you right away. The people who will be really affected are those who have asthma, and elderly people with lung issues and breathing problems. It’s almost always inhaled. People who get a lot of ammonia exposure, like housekeepers, will often develop chronic bronchitis and asthma.” Ammonia can also create a poisonous gas if it’s mixed with bleach." - 8 Hidden toxins by ExperiencedLife.com
- "Ingredients with high acute toxicity include chlorine bleach and ammonia, which produce fumes that are highly irritating to eyes, nose, throat and lungs, and should not be used by people with asthma or lung or heart problems. These two chemicals pose an added threat in that they can react with each other or other chemicals to form lung-damaging gases. Combining products that contain chlorine and ammonia or ammonia and lye (in some oven cleaners) produces chloramine gases, while chlorine combined with acids (commonly used in toilet bowl cleaners) forms toxic chlorine gas." - OrganicConsumers.org, How toxic are your household cleaning supplies?
- "2-Butoxyethanol is readily absorbed following inhalation, oral, and dermal exposure. ... 2-Butoxyethanol has moderate acute toxicity and is irritating to the eyes and skin; it is not a skin sensitizer." - World Health Organisation
- "Harmful effects on the liver and kidney were seen in some animals and may be related to hemolysis. 2-Butoxyethanol is also irritating to the skin and eyes of animals, as it is in people. ... Other reproductive effects and birth defects in animals have only been observed at doses that were toxic to the adult animals." - Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry
- "2-Butoxyethanol is readily absorbed via all routes of exposure (inhalation, dermal, ingestion) with low to moderate acute toxicity via oral, dermal and inhalation routes." And, 2-Butoxyethanol at 20% is too high for general consumer use in domestic products given its potential for skin and eye irritation and inhalation toxicity ." And, "Risks; The most sensitive toxicological end point is the destruction of red blood cells (haemolysis). Additional toxicities include neurotoxicity (loss of coordination, sluggishness and narcosis) and nephrotoxicity. And, 2-butoxyethanol has low to moderate acute toxicity via oral, dermal and inhalation routes, and severe skin and eye irritancy." - TGA Therapeutic Goods Administration Australia
Sodium Hypochlorite (bleach)
- How to Lighten Skin With Bleach
- How To Bleach Hair At Home
- Skin Lightening with Bleach
- "Household bleach (sodium hydroxide) is not, technically speaking, considered corrosive or toxic, even if ingested. However, bleach exposure can cause irritation in the eyes, mouth, lungs and on skin. Individuals with asthma or other breathing problems are particularly susceptible." - Bleach, Beyond Toxics.org
- Dangers of Bleach, Never mix it with these 3 things
- Bleach is known a s a skin irritant that causes inflammation, redness and swelling. It is highly toxic and not suitable for sensitive allergy prone skin.
- For treatment of eczema, some experts recommend using bleach diluted in a bath. But they warn that it will dry the skin and can cause further irritation to sensitive skin: "An eczema bleach bath can kill bacteria on the skin, reducing itching, redness and scaling." -Mayoclinic.org
- Bleach is listed as a hazardous substance under Section 311(B)(2)(a) of the Clean Water Act (US EPA, 2011), and under section 102(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), commonly known in the US as Superfund.
- Sodium hypochlorite is currently regulated under the Canadian Department of Justice, Hazardous Products Act, Ingredient Disclosure List (SOR/88-64) with maximum authorised concentration of 1 %.
- Australia NICNAS - No usage restrictions. Bleach is a skin and eye irritant, corrosive to skin when undiluted.